Sometimes you might not be able to add @Schema annotations to a class you are using in your public API (e.g. when the class is coming from an external dependency). Other times you might not want to (e.g. when the class is a value object from your domain). In this article you will learn how to define OpenAPI 3.0 class schema separately from your model, without having to touch the class you are documenting.
Code Soapbox Posts
Generating client code from an OpenAPI specification can save a lot of development time and reduce risk of that code being outdated. However, it is not immediately obvious how to generate that code from a Spring Boot application. This article explains how to generate Angular code from a Java Spring Boot project using Springdoc Swagger and Maven (though you can easily swap out Angular for any other language).
One of Swagger’s strongest selling points is the ability to generate client code from an OpenAPI specification – this usually works well if you’re using the Design First approach. Unfortunately, there doesn’t seem to be much information on how to automate the process when using the Code First approach. Today we will learn how to easily generate Angular code from a Java Spring Boot project using Springfox Swagger and Swagger Codegen.
If you’re using the springfox-swagger2 library, you might come across a problem when it comes to generic types (such as Pet<T>). In cases where diamond brackets are used, Swagger will generate an invalid specification, resulting in a validation error in the Swagger Editor (“”$ref values must be RFC3986-compliant percent-encoded URIs”).
The Liskov Substitution Principle, introduced by Barbara Liskov, represents the “L” in SOLID. It states that every implementation of a class should be replaceable with an implementation of any class that extends it. In other words, every instance of a parent class should be replaceable by any instance of its child classes so that the application continues to work.
The Open/Closed Principle represents the “O” in SOLID. In the words of Bertrand Meyer (who originated the term), it states that “software entities (classes, modules, functions, etc.) should be open for extension, but closed for modification“. What it means is that one should be able to extend the behavior of an entity without modifying its code.
The Single Responsibility Principle represents the “S” in SOLID. It means that a software module should only have one responsibility – in other words, there should never be more than one reason to modify that module (excluding, of course, refactoring and bug fixes). The responsibility of a module should be entirely encapsulated within that module and all services within it should be narrowly aligned with it.
The Java Stream API is a wonderful tool, but not without its shortcomings. There is a bug in Java 8 & 9 which affects the number of threads used by a parallel stream in a seemingly unpredictable way. Beware!
By default, Spring Boot uses an OpenEntityManagerInViewInterceptor which “binds a JPA EntityManager to the thread for the entire processing of the request […] to allow for lazy loading in web views despite the original transactions already being completed”.
In other words, in every
@RestController action, instead of throwing a
LazyInitializationException when you forget to fetch a lazy-loaded property, Spring will now fetch the property outside of the original transaction. The pattern (or antipattern) is called Open Session In View (OSIV) and, while it sounds fairly useful, is not a good choice for production environments.